Cardiac Output

Defined as: The volume pumped by each ventricles per minute.
  • Can also be written as the stroke volume x heart rate where stroke volume is the volume pumped by each ventricle.

Factors determining Cardiac Output (CO).

Volume of the cardiac output determined by 2 factors:

  • Permissive pumping capacity of the heart: the maximum volume which the ventricle can pump per minute.
  • Venous return: the volume of blood entering the right atrium per minute.

Changes in any of these two factors, would influence the cardiac output.